The Levitt ring model is a long established framework distinguishing between different types of product and service attributes. It is heavily used and cited in marketing literature. It distinguishes between core, primary attributes that meet consumers’ most basic needs, and non-core, secondary and tertiary attributes that offer consumers additional sources of added value. In her work on the appealing attributes of low carbon innovations, researcher Hazel Pettifor applies this framework across four domains of consumer facing low carbon innovations. Her findings suggest that low carbon innovations across these four domains share some core attributes (for example cost savings, ease of use, and health benefits) but cluster within domains against distinctive non-core attributes. For more information on this work please contact Hazel.