Smart homes or net zero energy homes are examples of disruptive low carbon innovations relating to housing. Smart homes comprise sensors, monitors, interfaces, control hubs, and devices that are networked wirelessly, and allow households to control, automate and optimise the domestic environment. Net zero energy homes combine advanced whole-system efficiencies (such as Passivhaus) with onsite renewable generation. Both smart homes and net zero energy homes perform poorly on valued mainstream attributes such as low upfront cost, convenience, passive end-user roles, and low or no maintenance. Rather, they offer novel attributes to end users including control, automation, active user-producer roles, and autonomy.