As from 1st July 2018, every country in Estonia has the option to implement free public transport for its residents all hours every day. However, a 2016 analysis of the Tallin scheme found that one year into the experiment, the scheme did not encourage people to leave their cars at home. Instead, the study found walkers to use the bus more leading to a 40% reduction in the number of trips made on foot. The study concluded that there was an undesired shift from walking to public transport and an increase in car traffic. Though, the study did find that free public transportation provided mobility access to those on a very low income and those out of employment and education.